The goddess Bride or Brigit, ended her ruling season, and her straw crosses were put up to proect family and livestock. In Scotland, Cailleach Bheur, goddess of winter, began her reign. The Celts believed on that night between the passing of the old year, and the arrival of the new, that the veil between our world and the Otherworld or spirit world was thinnest, and that spirits and faerie folk could visit the human world, and vice versa, and that you could contact your passed ancestors.
Animals in Celtic Life and Myth by Miranda Green - capavervinttoo.tk
That belief has continued with today's Halloween traditions of witches and ghosts, etc. The tradition of children 'trick or treating' possibly came from the ancient practise of 'soul caking', when children went round collecting cakes in return for saying prayers for the dead. In later times, children wore masks and carried turnip or pumpkin lanterns, going door to door asking for apples, nuts or money, the disguises originally to stop them being recognised and taken by spirits. The tradition of a turnip lantern, or more popular today, the "Jack O' Lantern" carved pumpkin, actually comes from the ancient Celtic practice of placing skulls of the dead on poles around the encampment, to drive away evil spirits.
The Winter Solstice was a celebration of the rising of the sun from it's lowest point in the sky, back to longer days and the lighter part of the year.
The sleeping earth was heading toward re-awakening. Evergreen trees were seen as a reminder that spring would bring re-birth. Druids ceremoniously cut mistletoe, and offerings were made to the Gods for the return of the Sun. Mistletoe was sacred, and as well as an antidote for poisons, had a fertility connection, carried on to this day as the tradition of "kissing under the mistletoe".
Next was the festival of IMBOLC on the eve of February 1st, marking the beginning of Spring, associated with the goddess Brighid, Brigit, or Bride, divinity of healing and childbirth, smithcraft and the hearth. Brighid is an important link between the Old Ways and the Celtic Christian church, and the hearth tradition continued in the form of St. Brigit of Kildare, who founded a monastery there, where a sacred flame, tended by nuns, burnt continuously from the 5th century until the Reformation, hundreds of years later.
In Ireland, her tradition continues at Imbolc time to this day, with woven wicker-work crosses, "Brigit's Crosses", being hung by doorways. Beltane means 'the fires of Bel'. In ancient times, Druids would kindle the Beltane fire, and two seperate bonfires were made, with poeple and animals being driven between them, to cleanse them of diseases and bad luck form the dark part of the year, winter.
Household hearths were re-lit from the Beltane fire, having been extinguished for the occasion. The festival tradition has continued to this day in Britain and Ireland, in the form of May Day celebrations.
It is also referred to as Midsummer because it is roughly the middle of the growing season throughout much of Europe. Many remains of ancient stone structures can be found throughout Europe, some of which align on the midsummer sunrise. In ancient Gaul the Midsummer celebration was called Feast of Epona, named after a horse goddess who personified fertility, sovereignty and agriculture.
She was portrayed as a woman riding a mare. The days following Alban Heruin form the waning part of the year because the days become shorter. To signify this, a descendant of an ancient ritual was to wrap a cartwheel with straw, set it alight, and roll it down a hill. Young children would spend the day weaving discs of vines, to light that evening and hurl into the sky, or roll down hills.
John takes place, with musical processions through the old town down to the harbour led by Penglaze, the Obby Oss. In legend it was foretold that he would kill his grandfather, so his mother, afraid for his life, fostered him to Tailtiu, Queen of the Fir Bolg, and later to the Sidh of the Sea God, Manannan Mac Lir, on the Isle of Man.
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Lughnasadh means 'the binding duty of Lugh', referring to funeral games he held in honour of his foster-mother Tailtiu, a goddess of agriculture. It is said that she died from exhaustion after clearing a great forest so that the land could be cultivated, and on her death-bed she told the men of Ireland to hold funeral games in her honor - she prophesied that as long as they were held Ireland would not be without song. Many summer fairs and festivals today come from this tradition.
Lughnasadh continued through the harvest time, not necessarily just one night, as crops were harvested in August, fruit in September, and meat in October. It may seem odd to start the year in November, but to the Celts it was a significant time, when the years labours had been harvested, and the ground was ready for winter planting. The ancient Celts were a flamboyant people, who loved festivals and feasting, with much drinking, music and story-telling. The Bardic tradition has survived to this day, being an important link to the past.
They also had Satirists, who were, like the Bards and Druids, high up in Celtic society, whose witty but often scathing prose could cost even a chief to fall out of favour. This trait has survived in some of the descendants of these people as sarcastic humour, often sadly misunderstood by other races, as has the liking for "a good old drink and a yarn". They favoured brightly coloured clothes, with stripes and checked patterns, the checked material carried on today as the tartans plaid of Scotland and Ireland.
They had fine jewellery in the form of neck torcs, bangles, rings and brooches, intricately decorated with their artwork, as were their weapons and armour, often inlaid with bright enamels. Their art had a purpose, normally functional, but also often to impress neighbouring tribes. The Celts were skilled horsemen, and revered their animals in the form of the horse goddess Epona, who was often featured on their coins.
Animals in Celtic Life and Myth / Edition 1
They were one of the first races to fight on horseback, even making armour for their mounts, and the Celtic cavalry was feared across Europe. They are said to have invented the spoked wheel, and were renowned for their use of their invention the chariot, fighting from it and as noted by amazed Roman historians, running out along the harness beam while at full speed.
They worshipped a triple-aspected goddess, the Morrigan, seen as Anu, Macha, and Badb, and were often seen fighting in threes. The number three was sacred to the ancient Celts, symbolic of life, death, and re-birth which was a matter of fact to them. Many of the ancient burial mounds contain 3 chambers, and their art often used configurations of three, a common ancient symbol being the triscele.
The triple aspect of the mind, body and spirit is still represented today in many religions. As each Celtic language had different spellings, and as they had many goddesses and gods, it is impossible to list them all, but important godesses were the mother goddess Danu Anu, Ana or Don , with her darker side as the Morrigan, and her sister Brigid Bride or Brigit , associated with the home, hearth, animals, wells, childbirth and healing. Gods included Dagda, "The Good God", god of druidry, Cernunnos, god of nature, animals and hunting who would later reappear as the Green Man , Lugh the sun god, Manannan the sea god, and Bel.
Their priests were the Druids, who were also healers, poets, philosophers, judges and prophets. All druids were bards, but not all bards went on to become druids, as the learning could take 20 years. Bookseller Inventory Synopsis: Animals played a crucial role in many aspects of Celtic life: in the economy, hunting, warfare, art, literature and religion.
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Such was their importance to this society, that an intimate relationship between humans and animals developed, in which the Celts believed many animals to have divine powers. In Animals in Celtic Life and Myth , Miranda Green draws on evidence from early Celtic documents, archaeology and iconography to consider the manner in which animals formed the basis of elaborate rituals and beliefs. She reveals that animals were endowed with an extremely high status, considered by the Celts as worthy of respect and admiration.
She is the editor of The Celtic World Routledge, Book Description Routledge, Condition: Very Good. Dust Jacket Condition: Very Good. Book itself iis almost as new aside from light bumping to the edges of the spine. Also, the text block has a few dingy spots. The dust jacket is creased along the edges and scuffed on the covers. Internally clean. Seller Inventory More information about this seller Contact this seller. Add to Basket.
Seller Inventory ARB Book Description Routledge, London, Condition: Near Fine. Dust Jacket Condition: Near Fine. Tall octavo. Brown cloth at spine Decorated boards. Gift inscribed and signed by one of the authors, Mildred Spencer. First Edition. Bound in perfect black cloth with bright, silver tiltes to spine, this hardcover First Edition is VG in VG dustjacket unclipped.
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