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Your behalf plays narrowed a youthful or random site. Since the cost of the floor system can be a major part of the structural cost of a building, selecting the most effective system for a given set of constraints is vital in achieving overall economy. This is especially important for buildings of low-and medium heights and for buildings subjected to relatively low wind or seismic forces, since the cost of lateral load resistance in these cases is minimal.
The information provided below will help in selecting an economical cast-in-place concrete floor system for a variety of span lengths and superimposed gravity loads. Also presented is basic information on the advantages of the systems, as well as general information on practical framing layouts and formwork. Long-span floor systems are also included in the discussion.
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Where mild reinforcement is utilized, a concrete mix with a compressive strength of 4, psi yields the least expensive system. Where post-tensioned reinforcement is used, a concrete compressive strength of at least 5, psi is usually specified to attain, among other things, more cost-effective anchorages and higher resistance in tension and shear.
This is essential to achieve economical formwork. Most projects do not have the budget to accommodate custom forms, unless they are required in a quantity that allows mass production. Repeat sizes and shapes of the concrete members wherever possible. Repetition allows forms to be reused from bay to bay and from floor to floor, resulting in maximum overall savings. Strive for simple formwork.
There are countless variables that must be evaluated and then integrated into the design of a building. Economy has traditionally meant a time-consuming search for ways to reduce the quantities of materials. For example, it may seem appropriate to vary the depth of beams with the loading and span variations, providing shallower beams where the loads or spans are smaller. This approach would result in moderate savings in materials, but would create additional costs in formwork, resulting in a substantially more expensive structure quite the opposite effect of that intended.
Providing a constant beam depth while varying the amounts of reinforcement along the span length is the simplest and most cost-effective solution. Further information on economical formwork is provided for each of the systems discussed below. In the preliminary design stage, it is very important to consider fire resistance.
State and municipal building codes throughout the U. Structural frames, floor and roof systems, and load-bearing walls must be able to withstand the stresses and strains imposed by fully developed fires and must carry their own dead load and superimposed loads without collapse. Concrete floor systems offer inherent fire resistance.
No additional protective measures are required to achieve code-prescribed fire-resistance ratings when the floor system is completed. Fire-resistance rating requirements usually vary from 1 to 4 hours, with 2 hours typically required for buildings. In general, the concrete member thickness required for structural purposes will usually be adequate to provide at least a 2-hour fire-resistance rating.
If the thickness necessary to satisfy fire-resistance requirements exceeds that required for structural purposes, consideration should be given to using a different type of aggregate that provides higher fire resistance for the same thickness. The minimum cover requirements to the main reinforcement specified by ACI Ref. In all cases, the local building code governing the specific project should be consulted to ensure minimum fire-resistance requirements are satisfied.
Primarily used in hotels, multi-family residential buildings, and hospitals, this system has the advantages of simple construction and formwork and a flat ceiling, the latter of which reduces ceiling finishing costs, since the architectural finish can be applied directly to the underside of the slab.
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Even more significant are the cost savings associated with the low-story heights made possible by the shallow floor system. For these cases, the flat plate is economical for spans between 15 ft and 20 ft. It will be the tallest concrete building in the U. Flat Slab System Longer Clear Span ft Figure 2: Minimum thickness of slabs without interior beams per ACI Sect walls, mechanical systems, plumbing, and a large number of other items of construction translate to large cost savings, especially for medium and high-rise buildings.
Moreover, where the total height of a building is restricted, using a flat plate will result in more stories accommodated within the set height.
Although drop panels result in somewhat higher formwork costs, a relatively shallow slab system is achieved in situations where punching shear would otherwise preclude the use of a flat plate. Flat plate systems are economically viable for short to medium spans and for moderate live loads. Up to live loads of about 50 psf, the deflection criteria usually govern, and the economical span length range is 15 ft to 25 ft.
For live loads of psf or more, punching shear stresses at the columns and bending moments in the slab con- Figure 3: Drop panel dimensions per ACI Sect. In order to take advantage of this allowable reduction in slab thickness, the drop panels must have the minimum dimensions given in ACI , which are illustrated in Figure 3.
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Drop dimensions are also controlled by formwork considerations. Figure 4 shows the standard lumber dimensions that are used when forming drop panels. Using other depths will unnecessarily increase formwork costs. For a live load of 50 psf or less, flat slabs are economically viable for span lengths between 25 ft and 30 ft. The economical range is 20 ft to 25 ft for a psf live load. An increase in live load from 50 psf accommodate this equipment.
The longer spans and inherent vibration resistance make this an attractive floor system for office buildings, hospitals, and schools.