The word value reflects the importance, worth, desirability and the respect something gets in return Soykan, As a sociological concept, values refer to similarities and shared demands. Social values are moral beliefs and principles that are accepted by the majority so as to ensure the continuity of a society Ergil, Values, in addition to these qualities, signal not what is there but what should be there in a society in form of moral imperatives. Inkeles, In that sense, values are accepted as truthful opinions and criteria set for what is expected by a society.
In fact, when we say we enjoy similar things and we find the same things beautiful, we refer to shared content of values.
What sociologists call collective consciousness are called by philosophers objective soul are the domain of common values Ulken, It is clear that without society, there will not be any biological, psychological, and sociological value. Only in society, language, religion, morals, arts, and traditions can appear the result of which is the accepted core of a society. Coming to the world as an organism, human beings come to learn societal dreams, ideals, norms, morals, arts and religion by means of growing into an identity produce from an organism seed Turkdogan, Ethos is what anthropologists and sociologists call when they mean a society's profile of values which comes from a Greek word meaning common behaviors Dogan, Values that inspire and are inspired by a society can function both as a measure as well as something that are measured.
In essence, values should be regarded as positive entities since "honesty" is a value; "intricacy" refers to lacking it. Values guide people as abstract entities that ordain people with ideal thinking and behavioral aspects such as being hard-working all the time.
Hence, values are belief-based narratives that shape our approach to stuff and events Ulgener, As such, they point at what is good and bad and guide people as abstract entities.
Human beings evaluate the universe and knowledge with what they hold as values. What's life? What's universe and how did it come into being? What's the value and function of knowledge? Continuity of values in the 21st century is especially important because of the qualities of this age that is characterized by technological advances.
It is also important in this globalizing world to set the principles of values education in an era in which values move around senselessly.
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The hierarchy and the categorization of values are as follows:. Some values such as working, producing, and being honest are more important than the others in the social life. Secondly, individuals achieve their desires one by one and one after another. Hence, we can always talk about the hierarchical structure of values such as a pyramidal one.
What rest behind an individual's success are not one or two values, but a set of values.
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Values make a hierarchical form in our cognitive world. Tools values are at the lowest part in the cognitive world. There are higher values on the tools values which also form a kind of hierarchy within it. At the top there are the ultimate values such as oneness in religion, democracy in society, monogamy in family, justice in social life all of which interact in a given society Aydin, In almost all societies, higher values are seen as important indicators of that society's continuity and welfare.
In the hierarchy of values, high values are important in all fields such as the value called justice applies to all fields such as economy, politics, and family. In this respect, the hierarchy of values must work in cooperation for the good of society. Values can be categorized in many ways such as by their content aesthetic, scientific, educational, economic, political, and social values , extensiveness societal, national and global values and process exchange modes modern and traditional values.
Here, we will focus on the categorizations of values on the basis of their extensiveness because of their importance in their dynamic role in society as well as in the world. Societal values; are criteria shared by the majority of a society in an ideal sense, all of which lead them to the better society.
Societal values regulate and organize daily life.
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Such values as honesty, sedulity, helpfulness, and modesty are some of these societal values. From a sociological perspective, ideally, real values are only unique to one society. Hence, values are original to one group at a single moment in time Dogan, Individual values are also important as societal ones.
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Individual values are answers to the questions like which values make me great or inspire me? Alex Law and Michael Weitz define individual values as "inspirational powers" Bacanli, National values are values that are necessary for a nation's unity and existence. For example, for Turks, the sacredness of the flag and love for the country and the indivisibility of the country are among national values. These values are essentially important to exist in the world as a nation by and large Dogan, National values function as keeping us together at home while keeping us different from the rest in the world.
Societal values and national values do not contradict, just the opposite, they are built on each other. In that sense, no societal value can exist against the constitutional system which is defined by national values. Global values are the values that are shared by all societies. Just as traditional values differ from one society to other and change in time, globalization brings new dimensions to modern societies which do not differ from traditional ones in essence. In other words, the way societies see virtue and morals, neighborhood relationships, trust and patronage, fidelity and betrayal, secrecy and privacy, love and tolerance, respect and fear either change or deteriorate under the influences of globalization.
Global values which affect societal values are as follows: knowledge, culture of competition, productivity, total quality, democracy, human rights, free market economy, and the individual. The last one is the most important value of the postmodern society knowledge society. Global values are not relative like societal ones, but are universal although this very saying depends on societal choices. For example, one can either stay in the global arena or rests in the societal sphere. The main problem is how a traditional society surrounded by traditional values can move beyond the limitations posed by the society itself Dogan, It should not be forgotten that science and technology are values as well.
According to D. McClelland, evolution of Western societies into industrial ones relies on the "achieving personality" while for E. Values in social system always take part at the beginning of activities, inside and at the end of the process because they are the powers which begin in the world of consciousness and conscience. Human beings and societies exist together with their values. Physical wealth of a society is also based on the perception, belief and values that the society has.
Those cultural codes are road maps in a way to determine the routes of an individual and the society. As a result, in almost every society people take values seriously, sacrifice their interest, struggle for them and even they die for them. In this context, some functions of values could be the following:.
It is not possible for a society to survive without education. Societies survive with education; maintain their existence, development and permanence by means of educational institutions both generally and fundamentally Mialaret, Education is a process which aims at biological, psychological, social and moral development of human being, who is a member of the society Thornburg, In this sense, education is a institutional structure which helps develop the identity of individual, prepares him for life by transferring data, skills and values necessary for him.
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There are three general functions of education for society. People are made to resemble each other through the process of socializing in order to ease collaboration and coherence Macionis, Education also aims at social improvement via a plan, which points out the constructive function of education.
Values education: what, how, why and what next?
Societies should not stay content with the knowledge acquired; that is, they must head for further knowledge and thus for the discovery of new worlds Ozden, The goal of education institutions is not only to teach but also to help students acquire all values necessary as a human being. Human being can be identified in many ways; however, primarily, human is a being that has values and creates values. Besides this there are two elective subjects that partly deal with values education: Religions and Ethics for 7th, 8th, and 9th grade and Philosophy for children Critical thinking, Ethical exploring, Me and the other; for 7th, 8th, and 9th grade.
Slovenian educational system does not require special training in the field of values education for teachers that teach mentioned subjects. Values education is a part of Swedish schools. Whereas the formal curricula is about educating students to be competent democratic citizens by practising student participation, qualitative studies have shown that in everyday school life, values education and school democracy often appeared to be reduced to traditional disciplining with high focus on rules and regulations.
In Thailand, values have traditionally been taught within the context of Buddhist religious education.
Since there has been a revival of applied values as an extracurricular activity suitable for Buddhist, Moslem and Christian students alike to prepare Thai students for the effects of globalization. Since the British government, although not recognising or calling it values education, has promoted and respected values in the guise of spiritual, moral, social and cultural development SMSCD leaving the initiative to individual schools to decide how values education standards should be met.
It is not clear whether there are standards of values education. The Government and state school systems have never called it "values education. One head teacher in Cornwall has achieved national recognition for his work on character development and 'virtues', at Kehelland Village School  , based on Baha'i teachings. He was asked to develop the primary section of the University of Birmingham's Character Education pack for use with the national curriculum .
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. According to C. Good'value education is the aggregate of all the process by means of which a person develops abilities and other form of behavior of the positive values in the society in which he lives'. Main article: Character education. Understanding value education in the primary school. York: Reports Express. A report of the task force on values, education and ethical behavior of the Baltimore County Public Schools. It is also useful to point out that values education can be conducted with people of any age.
A clarification of some key terms in values discussions, in M.